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Fitness advice - introduction

This training recommendation are your personal „training orientation“ for you as running/training beginner. You need a helping hand to enjoy this very natural outdoor sport. You should bring with you enough enthousiasm for this sport, so that you will go through the first 3-4 week very hard start up training. As runner you think how to optimize your training time (time beside job and family…)

- How many times should I run in a week

- which distances should I run

- with which Intensity

- in the morning, for lunch, at night….

Before you start your training you should have a medical check and the OK to start. All training figures in the plan are based on an average and can be modified to your personal needs.

The training environment/condition:


A flat track on similar surface as you will find at the marathon race ( training on a treadmill should be max 40%), no wind and heat with light cloth. We are not describing any special warm up before each training as this is common practice; same for exercises after your training.

Your optimum training heart rate is to be calculated from your individual Maximum heart rate (see training table). To define your max heart rate the simple method is to calculate 220 minus your age ( we know that the max heart rate falls with the age and with endurance training).


This training program is for running starter with average body indices. Every athlet should get medcal advice and the mdeical OK to start running. To optimise your running you can file all results at ( which is free of use) for you.

The goal of a training plan is it heart circulation and musculature / movement apparatus correspondingly to train.


Endurance is the robustness against fatigue. It is subdivided in the musculature in the local (stress of less than 1/6 of the total skeleton musculature-mass) and the general muscle endurance (stress of more than 1/6 of the total skeleton musculature-mass).

The locally-dynamic muscle endurance is dependent of the fibers of the corresponding musculature. The capillaries are the finest ramification of the vein. The artery comes of the heart with oxygen loaded blood and branches itself over the Arteriolen into the fibers/capellaries.

The fibers/capillaries lie like a network around the muscle. The picture is comparable with a Delta. The fluent speed of the blood decreases in the capillaries and it comes to the exchange of oxygen and coal dioxide so as well as further nutrient between the muscle and the blood. Of the muscle away toward lung the coal dioxide flows then blood loading.


Without fuel no power „

The oxygen provision of the muscle is to be formed the base to be able to deliver around aerobic endurance achievement without excessively much milk acid (Laktat). Only then a load can to receive over long time uprightly. The possible oxygen supply per unit of time toward muscle is accordingly of the total container cross-section of all capillaries dependent: the more largely the cross-section, the more can be exchanged per unit of time, the better is furnished the muscle and the more efficiently is it.

In the muscle itself, there are also biochemical achievement certain factors that are responsible for the endurance efficiency. In order to allocate one as greatly as possible energy quantity per unit of time on aerobic way, the Myoglobingehalt of the muscle must be as highly as possible. The red muscle dye, it is has Myoglobin more yet than the dye of the red blood cells, the capacity, also to be satiated in very slight oxygen-offer full with oxygen and serves therewith as an intercellular oxygen-storage and -balances to the Mitochondrien.

Thrifty intercourse with the fuel

The Mitochondrien are takes place the power plants of the cell, in them the aerobic energy provision. Your size and amount in the muscle decides accordingly over the aerobic endurance efficiency. And then yet the intramuscular carbohydrate-supplies are limiting for the duration efficiency: the larger they are, the muscle cell the more long can work. As an energy supply, Glykogen (a langkettiges sugar molecule), that serves becomes out of the carbohydrate synthetisiert received with the nourishment.

By the way: whether the muscle cell can go around also "economically" with energy supplies, depends on the clean coordination of the muscle movements: the better the total coordination is, the single muscle the more effectively works because it doesn't have to struggle against the resistances of other muscles. Also the energy consumption is the slighter therefore and the higher the endurance level. A good reason in order to work at technical weaknesses.

In the generally dynamic endurance will have to furnish that heart circulation systems more than 50 percent of its maximal achievement. With this degree of the load, we have it in the training of endurance sport type predominantly to do. The efficiency of the heart-circulation-system is also dependent on the maximal oxygen capacity. Just in long quiet units, the body in the steady-state works, it exists therefore a balance between oxygen reception and consumption. It is formed so well like no Laktat and are activated the metabolism processes to the energy provision.


Fluent balance

During the load, the new construction of structure materials (the Muskel knows act and Myosin as well as the winning of Mitochondrien white) steps into the background. It comes even to the dismantling of these substances and to cells-tore through the mechanical load of the training. This dismantling lasts according to load much hours after the training.

Too frequent, too long and intensive training leads namely to the dismantling of musculature, the white molecules are burned partially with, the muscle "lives itself on". The phenomenon is named Katabolie and causes a drop in performance.

End of the quiet comes the power

It is obvious that the regeneration phase takes in a very important function in the training plan. One subdivides into a fast regeneration phase, in which the constructing metabolism processes predominate. At the same time the deficit is similar itself at Elektrolyten (NaCl, Mg, K) - and water from. The filling up of the Glykogen reserves in the muscle and in the liver, the reconstruction at enzymes for the energy provision, the re-synthesis of act, Myosin and the Mitochondrien lasts some hours. For the regeneration becomes above all much white and carbohydrates needed.


These constructing (anabolen) processes lead performance improvement, the training effect to the sport type of specific. The body adapts itself to the new endurance load and therewith the individual efficiency climbs.

The heart

The heart a central function approaches in the circulation. It places pumped becomes the energy ready, with the bloods by the veins side on the arterial side of the circulation. In functional regard, the heart consists of two divided pump systems whereby the right and left ventricle an outer court apiece is connected before. The left heart half pumps the blood satiated with oxygen by contract ion of the left Veintrikels over the Aorta into the body circulation while the right heart half pumps the veins blood through contract ion of the right veintrikels into the lungs circulation. The contract ions of the right and left heart half results simultaneously. The pump effect of the heart develops from the rhythmic sequence of contract ion (Systole) and relaxation (slide stoles). In the slide stoles, the ventricles with blood are filled, becomes a part of the blood available in the veintrikls, the blow volume (normally ca. 70 ml) in the Systole.

The heart muscle works autonomous. How the skeleton muscle results the contract ions based on an electric excitement, that comes in the heart from the sinus knot, (in the right outer court, impulse frequency of ca. 60-90 impulses minute). The excitement extends itself radiär over the outer court musculature from and arrives so at AV-knot (Prechamber-Chamber-limits). Through the AV-knot, the forwarding shortly will slow down and extends accelerated itself after that again over the His-bundle and the Purkinje-threads over the chambers from. In the trap of a loss of the sinus knot, the AV-knot can receive the function of the excitement development (ca. 40-50 impulses minute). Even the subordinated structures (His-bundle etc.) can receive the excitement development in the trap of a loss of sinus-knot and AV-knot (ca. 30 – 40 impulses minute).

The normal quiet heart frequency amounts to about 60- 90 of blows per minute whereby each impulse of the excitement center causes a heart blow. A heart frequency (HF) of less than 60 blows is named Bradykardie (endurance sport can to a quiet heart frequency of 30-50 blows lead, one speaks then about a Sportbradykardie). The frequency climbs over 100 blows per minute, one speaks about a Tachykardie. The excitement development is influenced of the vegetativen nerve system. The Parasympathikus slows down the frequency, has only weak influence through its slight Innervation of the chambers however on a removal of the heart power. The Sympathikus accelerates on the other hand the heart frequency (z. B. under load) and causes an increase of the heart power through its expansion over the chambers in addition.

Already before working start, the behavior of the quiet heart frequency can be influenced by psychic like also emotional factors. The appearance one „before start reaction“ an increase of the Sympathikotonus causes through a central Innervation of the vegetativen circulation centers. From that resulted an increased fallout of Noradrenalin what causes a heart frequency increase.


Calculate your optimum heart rate TOBBSAN

The potential of the heart

The pump achievement of the heart is defined through the heart minutes volume (HMV). Under the heart minutes volume, one understands the quantity at blood in liters, that becomes in a minute out of the heart into the body circulation. It calculates itself through the multiplication of the end throw volume with the blow frequency.


The heart minutes volume can increase under physical load of normally 5 liter min up to 30 liter min. In load (increased oxygen requirement), the heart with an increase of the heart minutes volume (HMV = heart frequency x blow volume) reacts. More blood means also more oxygen for the body. In the Untrained, the boundary lies in the 4-5 of fold of the quiet value. The HMV-increase happens is raised mainly through an increase of the heart frequency to that 2 until 2,5fache, that on that 1.5 until 2fache to blow volume. The blood pressure increases until about RR 200/90 mm Hg. The data clusters of the heart in a trained in comparison with the Untrained are represented later in the image.

The sport heart“


The sport heart is with a weight of ca. 500g clearly larger and more efficient than the normal heart of the untrained with a weight of ca. 300g. It counted damaged long time in the literature as pathological and was looked at as a sequence of an overload. Today one knows is, who sport heart a healthy Adaptation on the endurance load and forms the base for the efficiency of the athlete. The sizes increase of the heart is to be led back to the enlarged heart volume and blow volume

In contrast to the pathological one-sided heart enlargement, the sport heart is enlarged symmetrical. The heart volume of an untrained man amounts to in the means 800 ml. In endurance trained, heart volumes were measured by 1000-1700 ml. The sport heart works in the lower load area with slighter frequency and contractibility increase as the normal heart and consumes through it less oxygen up to 25%. After termination of the competitive sport, the training contingent adaptations in the rule case form themselves back.

Through the systematically operated endurance training improved itself also the capilarisation/fibers in the claimed musculature. In the capillary zone results the material exchange and fluid exchanges between blood and tissue. Through the endurance training, the mode of operation of the total body becomes more economicly. Heart volume and physical endurance capacity correlate positively together. The best endurance athletes have the largest hearts.


Many trainings reports and „good hints“ are spread: each RUNNER should hear too very first on its characteristic body.


There only can be a training effect, i.e. one „positive functional adaptation“, if you set attractions. If you have trained for years practically always equally long, equally quickly – perhaps even always on the same course round –, it is no miracle if the achievement is in the contest also more and more or less same. Considering you once whether you have this year altogether significantly more trained than a previous year. If yes, and you have not overcharges yourself at the same time, an achievement improvement is very probable. „Do not demand overcharge must hold, but“, each performance-related athlete its body quasi „always on tiptoes“.

Many runners run in the training almost always approximately equally quickly, they have a unit speed, one „movement stereo type“until it is possible sometime hardly more to run a step more quickly. Control your pulse in the running. If the notice of your pulse clock moves always in a bandwidth of 10–20 blows, that is too little.

The change between the quietest and the fastest endurance run in the training should amount to at least 30–40 pulse blows. If you run a speedy duration course with pulse 170, the quiet, cozy duration course should be graduated approximately with pulse 130. Only then you train also the different energy provision ways and create the necessary attraction also for your musculature through a large variation of foot length and frequency. Vary however above all within a training week, but fewer within a training unit. The better the achievement level is, all the more is to be avoided a „MIX training“ (all at once).  

Create an extensive change through different duration course speeds, i.e. run you today more long, for that slowly and the next time more shortly, for that more quickly. Make not only duration courses, but rather occasionally also either an interval training (z. B. 6 xs 1 km speedily, in between always 3 minutes “walking”) or a „trip game“ where you intersperse into a quiet duration course again and again speedy sections. Do not run always only in the flat terrain and change you also in the course underground from (soft forest ground, but also asphalt). Run the one time alone, the other time jointly with other runners. The longest duration course in the training should last approximately three times so long like the shortest. They see, are the possibilities to the change large, if you the from benefit, will become the running never boring.


The running is one of the most low-priced sport type. Do not save however in the course shoes whereby to be sure the most expensive don't have to be the best. The course shoes must be adapted your foot form, your rolling behavior (excessive per nation/Supination), your weight, your achievement level and the predominant use purpose (for the terrain, for asphalt). Each shoe forces the foot into a certain Rolling position by what means the load is through hundred cable envoy steps always relative same. Alternate therefore in the course shoes. They should at least two or three couples use, that then also respectively more long hold. Outworn course shoes lost a large part of the damping and the stability. You have not so many feet, therefore fit on this up!

Functional course clothing is naturally more comfortable and better than the old Cotton T-Shirts. The two most important equipment object after the course shoes is probable a pulse measuring instrument. Without reason, the intensity control with the pulse clock in the health sport and in the tip sport did not prevail.


This mistake attaches directly to the preceding. Only a few athletes know your body so exactly that you correctly train automatically after feeling. In achievement tests stands again and again out that by the choice of an incorrect training intensity the training goal is missed. At the same time may be gone out there, from that only that athletes can be tested, who make himself also really thought around its training and are also ready, to pay for an achievement test. All sample good investigations (usually Laktat control) in training showed that between that „subjective perception of load“ (what the runners believe, what it train) and the actual objective load often a considerable difference exists.

Many runners read to be sure of your pulse clock a value, know however not at all how high this value should be actual. Many models (v. a. of polished) integrated a thoroughly useful test to the coarse establishment of the training effective area. If you however exactly want to know it, you should make a Laktate TEST in an institution where one is also in the situation to interpret the measured values correspondingly.


Load increase DOSAGE: the person becomes accustomed to almost all if one accustoms it slowly on that. That applies also to the training. Most runners are injured sometime because they have overcharges the adaptation possibilities above all the passive movement apparatus (tendons, volumes, joints). The stupid is, senses – it gives no red signal– separate that one the effects of a beginning overload usually not immediately usually with a couple of weeks delay. In the area of the musculature and the heart circulation system appear in regular, correctly dosed training within differences measurable less weeks. Your tendon extensions that are badly through blood need there unfortunately much more long. Therefore: do nothing rush and force increase with force, but rather the training long-termed in little steps. In the first training year, you should run maximally each second day, would like to contribute except you to the clear revenue increase of the orthopedists and Phsysiotherapeuten. You do not increase the training of year to year around more than 20 or 30% if you ran previously already 100 km per week, would be even 20% already very much. A unit per week more than in the preceding year is not ok, but doubly or three times so much. Naturally they can run also every day, sometimes perhaps even twice at the day, but few is grants is just only entirely, to count therewith also better to the best THE course technology running the simplest sport type of the world. Each infant knows that and can it. Nevertheless one sees many runners, who use two-thirds of the energy for the propulsion, and one-third for braking. That is go like car, climb where you simultaneously on gas and brake, therefore also not very meaningfully. Not economicaly running is however not only running with dressed hand brake – the load tips resulting unnecessary from that lead also to injuries. The most important criteria: you avoid move unnecessary vertical movements, i.e. head and shoulders as uniform as possible forwards and not excessively highly deep. „Do not fall see“ you simply into the next step in, but rather you the foot treatise as an active, grasping process. You do not row hinders with the arms and the shoulders around, that only the quickly-running and cost unnecessary

energy. In the brisker course speed, the heel should be led in the before momentum of the leg relatively closely under the back. With this „pendulum shortening“ you cause the so important sequence of tension and relaxation. Regarding tension: you rub will notice once in the running thumb on index finger and you, relaxed are how then immediately your shoulders and your entire torso. You can try that even also once in between in the next contest. Let yourself once in the running of the side and of ahead film. Perhaps it gives one rather difference between that, what you feel and what you see then, to that.

One must emphasize REGENERATIONS PHASES that again and again: the actual achievement improvement does not happen in the training, but rather in the recovery after that. Regard load and recovery always as a unit. If you orderly train, you must remain also orderly recover, otherwise that many trainings more purely even purpose. The higher the load is, the regeneration all the more more long lasts. There must be regeneration phases between the single training units (within a training week), must have the body after several weeks with high load of and also at the end a season once the chance to get again so correctly air. The regeneration phases receive also the desire at the running and have nothing with laziness to do. Regeneration also actively can pass, z. B. through an easy training in another endurance sport type.

The most important regeneration measure is the sleep. He who does not listen sufficiently and regularly at the mattress, does not need to be surprised if the achievement is for falling asleep. A rule of thumb purported is necessary also, that for each hour course training an hour more sleep, also if that in the practice is not to be transferred always simply. Paula Radcliff sleeps runs nominally twelve hours per night and two further hours, in between in the afternoon it a marathon in 2:15. the sleep alone is naturally yet no guarantor for a victory at the Olympics (how one seen has ...), but probably the most comfortable and cheapest possibility to the performance improvement. To the regeneration belonged also an adapted nourishment (z. B. early carbohydrate supply after an emptying training, many little meals over the day distributes, drink much, can be shortened ...), Stretching and passive forms of the regeneration as well as massage, change shower, etc. with these regeneration measures the necessary regeneration time sometimes on the half, i.e. They can train and become therewith more frequently efficient less sick and injures be.

TRAININGS INTENSITY also if it is so extreme today thanks to many “ training experts“ no longer, many runners believe always yet the more torment themselves it, all the more better. Occasionally hard training courses are natural and contests the salt in the soup, but quiet must represent the basis of each endurance training, perhaps for that somewhat longer units. It does not go must in the long run therefore to create a short piece if possible quickly to sprint, but rather an usually rather long stretch without large break-in, i.e. we economical and fuel saving underway be. He who combs always head with high red through the area, will train perhaps its load robustness, but will become not really better. The training with approx 65–75/80% this economy and the bases endurance improves the maximal heart frequency best. By the way: it does not function if you believe, that you however twice as quickly run rather only half so long, for that!

You can file with your personal training results and set your training goals. Tobbsan will calculate your best training and time to focus on; you also can get your expected running time for races based on your training results. (Login necessary) TOBBSAN

TRAINGS HARMONY it would be a more rather chance if your course partners have all the same course level (with same relative strengths and weakness) like you. In the training in the group, one-third is overcharges usually, one-third under charged and for one-third, it fits somewhat. If the level is different, the weaker runners should observe the joint unit than its faster and really quietly should run then at least in the alone-running. Social thinking is (almost) must be able to be always good, only in the training one already also once an egoist.

STRETCHING - STRETCHING so pretty and efficient the running also is, is it a rather one-sided matter. Certain muscle groups are trained very well, other (almost) not at all. In order to create a conscience balance and to secure also the load compatibility, a supplementary strengthening program is so can be the strengthening of the back leg muscles the best prevention vis-à-vis Achillessehnen injuries and the prerequisite for an efficient course technology with a distinct stretching in hip-, knee joint and leap joint.

Each should make stretching, whether now as a preparation for sporting or other activities. Many athletes concentrate dedicate the improvement of its mobility on fitness, power and endurance however only very little time. At the same time fitness is increases without mobility unthinkable there latter the achievement and dismantles muscle bracing. Without Stretching increases emerges cramped demonstrable the injury danger on the basis of hard or stiff muscle threads; moreover one and unhealthy bearing. Our joints are mobile and can empty its full movement amplitude, without that surrounding muscle tissue hinders it. The movement amplitude varies and hangs of the type of the movement off. In the every day it is require a more certainly; healthy movement latitude compel, special physical activities on the other hand circumstances permitting one much higher. How far the mobility can be increased, is determined through different factors:

1st elasticity of the connective tissue in the muscle threads and drum around - i.e. how strongly it can expand and develops like it. 2. The type of the joint structure: if you raise for example a leg on the side of, the movement latitude is restricted sooner through the hip bones than through the muscle resistance. 3. The volumes can be extended also to expand in latitude. To be sure the danger of a wrench of the joints exists here. 4. Further the genetic inclination influences the bone form and the elasticity of the connective tissue. Helps stretch, above all through Stretching ( = static stretching), undesirable side-effect the course training, namely a shortening the musculature, to avoid. A minimum at mobility is also a prerequisite for an economical course technology because therewith the internal resistances of the musculature are decreased.

CONSIDERED TRAINING if you want to decay three weeks before the marathon in panic and quickly want to make up now the neglected training, forget you it. neglected training can one fundamentally never make up, already not at all after an illness where the immune system perhaps always yet is weakened. It likes to function perhaps somewhere else, can cause one in the running in any case not in few weeks miracle. If you want to find out your potential , only regular training helps over years through for what naturally patience and perseverance are placed on the sample. The reaching of large goals is not simple, but your joy will be all the more larger the more long you worked on this goal honestly there.

TRAINER ONLINE USA OF YOUR PERSONEL AT you the possibility has its training results on tobbsan. com of all to register (free-cost-free). The entry results Online and you can always your results retrieve and analyze. They receive all important indices for each training unit: distance-time-speed – mixed pulse – training conditions… you can determine and receive a training period (date of and date until) over this period all important indices: average speed, training frequency, .... They can use these information for your training plan. The single training (day state) does not determine your efficiency, but rather the results over a longer period. They use tobbsan. com as course club Online where you running events in the course calendar just as as world best achievements and course club.

III. RUNNING – Definitions

Adrenalin: the hormone A / WELL a naturally occurring Katecholamin, which is formed in the Nebennierenmark, in the chromaffinen tissue as well as in the Paraganglien of the Sympathikus, is. It causes the attitude of the total organism on a stress-situation (" fight or flight reaction"). This comprises influences on the heart-circulation-system and biochemical transpositions of agencies, among other things Stimulierung of the Gluconeogenese in the liver and Lipolyse in the fat tissue. In the NNM, the Katecholamine adrenalins (A) are formed to 80% and Noradrenalin (WELL) to 20%. End of the amino acid (ACE) Tyrosin becomes over intermediate stages Dopa, Dopamin and then WELL formed becomes, will be formed out of which then A. Proofs let itself WELL and A in the urine over the dismantling product Vanillinmandelsäure. A proof out of the blood succeeds disappear badly, there both hormones quickly again out of the blood train after they were poured out.

Effect and function of A & WELL psychic and organic attitude of living being on acute threat situations (alarm situations, Fight- escape-Situationen). It comes to an increase of the heart achievement, strengthening of the Muskeldurchblutung, raising of the blood sugar mirror, involvement of the respiration and blockage of the Darmtraktes. A and WELL are designated also as an Emergency-hormone. WELL addresses prescribe only on a -and adrenalin addresses on a - and b - prescribe, have however a higher affinity to b - prescribe. Adrenalin causes in the peripheral circulation vesselkonstricting (narrows the containers). Acceptance is that it is poured out primarily in physical load. Noradrenalin activates the heart muscle and the ZNS (central nerve system) and is poured out primarily in psychological load. Katecholamine are looked at as a humorales copy of the OR (orientation reaction) in onerous unsteady situations. In studies of franc houses ‘72 interindividual differences considerable appeared regarding the Katecholaminausschüttung and the duration of the dismantling. An increased A-Auschüttung must not to be sure expression of negatively sounded load as well as over load or lower load at the job be, but rather also expression of the personal participation can be.

Comprehensively: Catecholamine situations determine the measurement of an activation change as a reaction to certain environment and are also expression of the situations and personality specific Aktivierbarkeit. The effects of adrenalin on our body are enormous. Increase of heart blow frequency, heart contract ion and blood pressure, Konstriktion of the containers in the skin and Dilatation of the containers in the musculature

Aerobically: metabolism processes that expire with oxygen are. At the same time carbohydrates, fat become and white dismantled to water and coal dioxide.

Anabole Steroide: this substance class is in the effect the masculine sex hormone Testosteron near state and influences the muscle construction. The increase of the muscle mass and the euphorisierende effect of this Steroide is the cause for an abundant distribution in the high performance sport and fitness sport (Bodybuilde anaerobic: metabolism processes are expire that without oxygen. In anaerobic energy provision Laktat is being produced. Would swell aerobically anaerobically: that moment from that the energy release necessary for running no longer purely aerobically result can. Highest Laktat concentration which can be borne readily climb of the milk acid mirror in constant speed.

Load pulse: that pulse with that you your training-courses graduate. You let determine the optimal training pulse in an achievement diagnostics. Blood pressure: daily the human heart pumps a blood quantity of ca. 9'000 liters through the body. In each heart blow, a pressure wave is released at the same time, that is forwarded into the artery. A pressure tip emerges then if the heart muscle contraction and the blood conveys themselves forwards. With the blood pressure measuring instrument, this pressure tip is measured as an upper (systolischer) blood pressure value. But also between the Pumps - if itself the heart again with blood fills - rules in the arteries a more certainly pressure. The blood will forward in this short moment through the elastic and muscular artery walls. This pressure is slighter than the systolische pressure. It is designated as more less more than (diastolischer) pressure. The pressure readings are indicated in mm Hg, therefore in millimeter mercury column. During the day, the blood pressure values sway. Mornings the values are increase relative deep, with the start of the day activity it. Against evening, the blood pressure is declines usually most highly, during the sleep it again. Is normal also, the exertions physical and psychic or loads the blood pressure passing into the height drive.


Blood pressure value up to 140 to 90mm HG are normal. Occasionally deviating values are insignificant, for the blood pressure is subject to daily strong variations depending from your age . If in repeated measurements the values lies more highly than the standard value, one speaks about blood high pressure (Hypertonie). The blood pressure hangs be indicated of the blood quantity, the container condition (resistance) and the pump power of the heart the values of the blood pressure in 2 numbers: for example 120/80 mm of Hg. The first value corresponds to the upper value (systolischer value) :

statement of the pressure in the containers (arteries) contraction of the heart. The second value corresponds to the lower value (diastolischer value) : statement of the pressure in the containers if the heart with blood fills itself.


Normally until 140 to 90mm HG

limit until 160 to 95mm HG (Grenzwerthypertonie)

about that: blood high pressure ( = manifesto Hypertonie)

Blood pressure measurement: above the arm bend, an inflatable cuff is put around the arm and over a little hand pump as long as with air filled, until the artery of the arm is pushed. A pressure knife (manometer) indicates the pressure (mmHg) in the cuff. Then one lets the air slowly again off. Simultaneously the lower searcher (or the patient himself) a Stethoskop sets into the arm bend. The first sound that it hears therewith corresponds during the heart blow (systolischer pressure, upper value) to the pressure. The last, just yet audible sound is caused by the pressure during the loosening of the heart (diastolischer pressure, lower value). The height of both pressures are read at the manometer and notes, for example 120/80.

Cross race: course to one side of the emerged path. Forest / meadows of courses.

Duration course: the reason form each trainings of longer duration in uniform speed / pulse

Ergometrie: the achievement measurement of the muskulären work with an Ergometer; serves to the ascertainment of the maximal efficiency of heart-circulation.

Bases endurance: duration courses with which the energy is produced under sufficient availability by oxygen.

Heart frequency: heart function under load. Serves to reach of the load pulse

Heart frequency MIXED : becomes reached in load boundary: rule of thumb is 220 minus age. To train interval training the classic speed training and reason speed increase; the contest speed

Jogging: also duration course

Carbohydrates: 60% of the nourishment reception should be for endurance athlete

Laktat: the final product of the anaerobic Glykose. In oxygen deficiency, so Energy production lets dismantled will be itself, in that Muskelglykogen to Laktat milk acid (Laktat) the final product of the anaerobic metabolism. This substance emerges in intensive loads if the musculature receives sufficient oxygen to the cover of the energy demand over lung and circulation no longer. The concentration of the Laktat is to be determined simply; one needs only a Tröpfchen blood out the finger tip. Through the determination of the Laktat concentration, one can pull ends over the load intensity and the current efficiency. In a so-called achievement test, the the Laktat concentration is determined during the course in increasing speed. In the load start, the the Laktat concentration in the blood lies in approximately a unit (Millimol, abbreviated mmol); in the course of the test, the Laktat concentration climbs simultaneously with the speed on. In one max. Load can lie the Laktatk concentration in values of <20 mmol. Based on this test, one can find out the optimal course speed for the different training areas.

The endurance is trained best in a course speed corresponding to a the Laktat concentration of between 1.5 and 3 mmol. More intensive training as well as speed courses and interval training takes place in a the Laktat concentration of between 4 and 6 mmol. The optimal speed for the marathon lies in a the Laktat concentration on of ca. 2.5 mmol.

The determination of the the Laktat concentration proved to be an auxiliary empire method for the formation and the inspection during a training program. Shortly before a marathon, many course pros laktat controlled speed courses e.g. 3 xs graduate 3000 ms in the planned marathon speeds in order to control its form. One tries to graduate the first course slower than the planned marathon speed (ca.10 Sek/km), the second course negligibly more quickly (about 5 Sek/km more slowly than the planned marathon speed) and the third course in the planned marathon speed. The Laktat values do not enable then a statement whether the planned speed is correct or. Also course beginner or Walker can win important information on its training condition through occasional Laktat controll. So they can recognize for example on time overstrain and can avoid over training as well as injuries

Charley horse: appear movement painful and load painful the musculature that as a result of an intensive also unaccustomed achievement request.

Nose respiration: through the nose inhale breath out.

Osteoporosis: is caused by a negative bone balance; it is dismantled reproduced will climb over a longer time more bone substance than a new bone. the risk of the fracture. Run and reinforce movement calcium reception out of the nourishment and strengthen so the bones.

Per nation: simply declared it is the kinking of the leap joint after interior. The per nation is can lead a natural movement. a so-called over pronation to false loads and should be prevented can by suitable shoe work.

Cross: a terrain course

To form itself regeneration: that phase in that our body recovered around new reserves. Sufficient regeneration phases are important component of the training.

Training coach: aimed voting inspection of all training flows to the variation of the sporting achievement condition.

Over training: too frequent and to load following quickly on each other: insomnia weakness concentration weakness....  

  1. AEROBICALLY – ANAEROBICALLY: a yet more exact description for that that it very exactly know want:

  2. One distinguishes two head mechanisms of the energy provision: 1. The aerobic (=oxidative) energy provision: development of ATP under consumption

  3. of oxygen 2. the anaerobic energy provision: development of ATP without consumption of oxygen.

To 1: the aerobic energy winning follows through complete combustion (=Oxidation) from a) carbohydrates (more exactly: glucose = dextrose) and b) fats (more exact: fat acids) = Betaoxidation respectively to coal dioxide and water (CO2 + H2O) whereby the glucoses are made available by Glykogenabbau (Glykolyse) and the fat acids by fat split (Lipolyse). To 2: the anaerobic energy winning follows through • split of the stored energy

empires phosphate ATP and Kreatinphosphat = anaerobically - alaktazide energy provision • incomplete combustion from glucose under development of Lactat ("milc acid") : anaerobic Glykolyse = anaerobically - laktazide energy provision therefore stand the muscle metabolism 4 mechanisms of the energy winning to the decree, that are claimed according to intensity and duration of the physical load. • The measurement of the load intensity

primarily does not determine, the load duration the corresponding energy provision.

Example Joggen: aerobic energy provision means low load intensity, that through especially fat combustion, equal, whether only for 5 minutes or 2 hours. This ahead for everyone, that are subject to the widespread crazy belief, the fat combustion would use first after a half hour! It exists fundamentally always a "next to one another" the single mechanisms of the energy provision with fluent transitions dependent upon the load intensity and no "after each other" how multiply believed becomes.  




The speed of the energy provision, that already mentioned energy river rate (ATP-development per time), is naturally in that anaerobically - alaktaziden mechanism most largely and takes in the anaerobic Glykolyse (anaerobically-laktazider mechanism), the aerobic glucose combustion as well as fat combustion around respectively ca. the half off. For that increases the energy salaries in the same sequence.


Intensity POWER length

We go in now more exactly on the single mechanisms of the energy provision. 1. Anaerobically - alaktazide energy provision: how already assessed, can be transferred that by means of the "energy empires phosphate" (ATP, Kreatinphosphat) directly available chemical energy fastest and enables therewith the higherst possibel achievement. However this energy source is very little and passes only for short time, namely 6 to 10 (max. 15) seconds. It is decisively for maximal power and fast power as well as speed (examples: 100m-Sprint, weight elevated, high leap etc.) the energy empires consumed at the same time phosphate however also very quickly are restored (according to

training condition after some seconds until few minutes). Since some years is effective and sprint sports the high dose receipt of Kreatin usual in order to enlarge through it the Kreatinphosphat reserve of the musculature and to increase therewith the achievement.

2nd anaerobically-laktazide energy provision (anaerobic Glykolyse) : this for power endurance and above all speed endurance decisive mechanisms the necessary energy places for a very intensive, maximally possible achievement between 15 and 45 (max. 60) seconds to the decree. For a pure alaktazide energy winning, the load duration is in this case already too long, for a with participation of the aerobic glucose combustion too shortly and the load intensity too highly. At the same time the glucose coming out of the muscel glykogen is burned incomplete whereby Lactat ("Milchsäure emerges", more exactly: the Anion of the milk acid), that as a result of the Protein emerging (H +) in the claimed musculature accumulates itself. It comes is to a metabolic Azidose ("Over stimulation / Übersäuerung"), that not only painfully, but rather in the end power limited because in the sour milieu (the boundary lies in a pH of 7) by an enzyme inhibition the muscle contract ions is checked - one is "blue" how it is named in the specialty jargon. In the anaerobic Glykolyse, only 2 mol ATP are won out of the dismantling of 1 mol glucose to 2 ml Laktat. In complete Oxidation of 1 mol glucose (see below in point 3), 38 mol ATP are won.



For that, that want to know it more exact: for the over acidification, the development of Protonen (so names one the positively loaded hydrogen ions = H +) is responsibly. The widespread view that it would be the development of milk acid and/or Lactat (milk acid = Lactat- + H +), that for the metabolic Azidose is responsible, is however incorrect. Rather it is so that the Laktatproduktion of the Azidose even works against, because the transformation of Pyruvat receives to Lactat through the Lactatdehydogenase (LDH) a part of the Protonen, that are released in the transformation from glucose to Pyruvat. A further release of Protonen appears in the hydrolysis of ATP. With increasing load intensity and therewith energy river rate it comes through the Glykolyse to an increased ATP-hydrolysis and an increasing per sound release in the Zytosol of the muscle cell. If its soften capacity is exhausted, it comes to the Azidose. The increasing Lactat production is not therefore a sequence and the cause of the metabolic Azidose. Lactat is therefore a good indirect Marker for the changed cellulose change, that leads to an Azidose, but it is not responsible for this.


Classic example is the 400m-Lauf (where the athletes on the last meters through the extreme over acidification incidentally slower become), and of the 500m-Eisschnellauf, the 1000m-Bahnzeitfahren, but also a longer sprint in the long-range course. 400m-Sprinter reach the highest Lactatwerte based on its large anaerobic capacity and acid tolerance generally (until 30 mmol/l). Because the Protonen arrive out of that „sour“ muscle into the circulation, it comes to a short-term extreme over acidification of the organism, that would not be normally reconcilable with the life, (metabolische Azidose with pH-values until down to 7, in the claimed muscle amounts to the local pH short-termed even under 7).

After discontinuance of the anaerobic end load, one senses however a quick diminishing through the soften and respiratoricle compensation of the Azidose the „muscel burning“. Simultaneously the accumulated Lactat is removed after load envoy parallel to the Protenen (Lactat/H + - Kotransport) within minutes again in that the share remaining in the musculature becomes metabolism (completely burned) via transformation Pyruvat aerobically. That into the blood circulation washed out Lactat is constructed in the liver and musculature over glucose to Glykogen, but is requisitioned also by the heart musculature to the energy winning (by the way: Lactat has nothing with that „charley horse“ to do, like many an always yet my).

Lactat is therefore no „waste product“, but rather serves both the energy storage and as an energy supplier. Therefore it is important let slowly fade away after an intensive anaerobic load this for several minutes (running out,...), there therewith the Lactat dismantling and therewith the muscles recovery substantially quicker managed becomes than in the trap of physical quiet. One names this active recovery.

3. Aerobic energy provision (glucose and Fettsäureoxidation) : this mechanism of the ATP-winning comes in the endurance sport types for carrying, with which the maximal oxygen reception (VO2max is) decisively. The physical load of a larger muscle group lasts more long than a 90 seconds, the aerobic (=oxidative begins to play) energy winning the decisive role (like already above mentioned, begins the fat combustion not first after a half hour!) Become always both nutrients carbohydrates and fats as energy suppliers requisitioned (" the fats burn in the fire of the carbohydrates" : so that the joint development of Acetyl-Coenzym A meant, which in the Citrazyklus inserted becomes) whereby according to load intensity a fluent transition in the proportionate energy provision exists, that depends above all on the training condition. In very intensive aerobic requests (z. B. 5000m-Lauf) become as good as excluding carbohydrates (in the form of Glykogen and/or glucose), in extensive, longer duration loads (z. B. in the streat biking races) all the more more fat acids burned. In intensive endurance loads, the glucose is burned in part incomplete, is therefore also the anaerobic Glykolyse to a conscience percentage at the aerobic energy provision with participant. In this case, Lactatbildung (anaerobically) and Lactatabbau (aerobically) must hold themselves however the scales in order to avoid an over acidification. This corresponds then the individually maximally possible intensity, that uprightly can be received over a longer period, the so-called "threshold achievement" at the so-called anaerobic threshold (more exactly: aerobically-anaerobic threshold and/or duration achievement boundary), the decisive criterion in the endurance sport. The anaerobic threshold is indicated often with 4 mmol/l Lactat, this is however only a averages why it should become in the competitive sport individually determined (with for example marathon runners lies the duration achievement boundary clearly under 4 mmol/l, in untrained usually about that).

By to highly selected load intensity (above the anaerobic threshold), the increasing muscles over acidification with corresponding accumulation of Protonen and therewith also Lactat (Lactatbildung more largely than a Lactatelimination) would force to the premature discontinuance of the load (see point 2). All that plays an essential role in the achievement diagnostics and training control in the endurance sport. The Glykogen savings extensively are exhausted in intensive duration load according to training condition after 60 to 90 minutes. In continuation of the endurance load, the muscle metabolism is directed now on an increased fat combustion whereby this energy provision more oxygen requires and results only half so quickly like in the oxidativen glucose combustion (lower energy river rate, see above). That has as a consequence that as a rule a reduction of the load intensity (z. B. the course speed) is not necessary (the notorious “branch“ or “man with the hammer“ in a marathon, that one itself well divided has and/or if one on a regular carbohydrate supply “forgotten“ has the emptied Glykogen savings of the musculature become in corresponding nourishment (carbohydrate empire, v. a. within the first two hours after load) according to training condition Again filled up. To raise by the capacity of the muscle Glykogen savings before an endurance contest ("Kohlenhydrat-Laden", "Tapering"), gives it different methods that one must try to be sure previously. Most is emptied ca. 5 days before the contest through an intensive training unit of ca. one and a half hours of the muscles Glykogen savings. The musculature through extensively carbohydrate free food as well as further training becomes "starved" the following 3 days regular and subsequently an until two days to the contest with abundant carbohydrate nourishment "feed". Our practically inexhaustible fat reserves enable carried

out will must ultra long endurance achievements, that naturally with correspondingly low intensity. Examples: in endurance loads, that last more long than a two hours, a well trained fat metabolism is decisively so that it enables in spite of the relatively slow energy provision one as high as possible load intensity in simultaneous savings of the valuable Glykogen savings .

Terminating another couple of words to the muscle thread types: one that distinguishes coarsely slowly shaking of "red" of the muscle threads "white" quickly shaking. First are store can through its concentration of Myoglobin (red muscle dye), the oxygen, as well as Mitochondrien (" power plants of the cell", in which the oxidative combustion of glucose and fat acid takes place) and oxidativen enzymes (organic catalysts for the aerobic glucose combustion and fat combustion) on the aerobic energy provision and therewith endurance achievements specializes. The "fast" muscle threads on the other hand are marked split through a high concentration of energy empire phosphate and enzymes, that this as well as dismantle can Glykogen also without oxygen and therewith on the anaerobic energy provisions, therefore power and speed, specializes.

Somewhat more exact: 1st type I-threads = ST-threads: „slow“ and/or „slowly shaking" muscle thread (slow twitch) with high fatigue resistance, high concentration at ATPase, relatively low Glykogengehalt and low concentration at SDH (Succinatdehydrogenase) as well as next to Myoglobingehalt mentioned above also of a high amount at Mitochondrien (that "power plants of the cell", in which the oxidative combustion by glucose and fat acids takes place). They are found predominantly in the "red" musculature and possess a good energy supply system through a good Kapillarisierung. They are used in long carried out movements with slight power development. 2nd type II-threads: reversed enzyme pattern, further distinction in • type IIA-threads: "fast" and/or "quickly " (almost twitch) threads with high fatigue bias, high concentration of gylykolytischen and oxidativen enzymes that are required in more long finished contract ions with relatively high power development. • Type IIB-threads: fast, easily tiering threads with high Glykogen- and low

Mitochondriengehalt. Your energy provision takes place very quickly, v. a. via the Glykolyse, important to short and/or intermediate loads with high power development.

Type IIC-threads: so-called intermediate fibers that are to be incorporated between type I and II and develop according to training sooner type I- or sooner type II-characteristics. To be sure must be said that the relation between the histochemical and the functional arrangement is to be seen relatively loosely. The ratio between these muscle thread types seems extensively genetically determined to be and holds itself at most persons the scales. To be sure a clear predominating of the fast threads could be assessed with colored sprinters, what bolsters the hypothesis, that one must to the sprinter born its (actually gives it only few world class sprinters white). Through specific training, it comes to a functional adaptation of the corresponding muscle thread types (selective Hypertrophie). So endurance training to a better oxygen utilization of the "red" threads leads and therewith to an improvement of the VO2max. A real transformation between "red" and is, type I - and type II-threads it "knows" after the present knowledge state not possible gives however the already named "intermediate" muscle threads that are to be sure the fast threads similar, but also "slow" characteristics possess and transformed will can through endurance training to "red" threads. The fact that many means stretch runners in the course of the years change on always longer distances (to the marathon), this observation underlines and shows the years-long development in the endurance sport up, in which one reaches first the individual achievement zenith after many years of the constructing, consistent training. For that one uprightly can receive this level yet relatively long (one would remember: 1984 became Carlos Lopez at 38 years of age Olympic gold medallist in the marathon - with a time of 2 hours 8 minutes!) The reversed case, same the transformation of "red too white" is decreases obviously not possible, the motor reason characteristic "speed" (like also the "power") with increasing age. To date yet no long-range runner became the sprinter! Proportionate muscle energy provision in percent (averages, individual variations)


oxidation %

Glykolyse- aerob %

Glykolyse anaerob %


phosphat %

  24-Hours race

      ca. 88

Muskelglykogen ca. 10





Leberglykogen (Blutglukose)      ca. 2




      ca. 60

Muskelglykogen ca. 35





Leberglykogen (Blutglukose)      ca. 5




      ca. 20

Muskelglykogen ca. 75





Leberglykogen (Blutglukose)      ca. 5



  10000 m


      ca. 95 - 97

        ca. 3 - 5


  5000 m


      ca. 85 - 90

    ca. 10 - 15


  1500 m


      ca. 75

        ca. 25


  800 m


      ca. 50

        ca. 50


  400 m


      ca. 25

  ca. 60 - 65

ca. 10 - 15

  200 m


      ca. 10

        ca. 65

ca. 25

  100 m



        ca. 50

ca. 50

That important:

in muscle working, chemical energy (ATP) is transformed into mechanical energy and warmth.

The more highly the energy river rate (ATP-development per time), the more highly the achievement.

Intensity and duration of the maximally possible achievement behave contrary.

The nutrients carbohydrates and fats our energy storages, that are requisitioned according to intensity and duration of the physical load on different type to the energy winning, are.

A specific energy provision that holds together with the muscle thread type requires each sport type.

The energy provision in the muscle metabolism is dependent on the training condition and in part also of the nourishment.

The better the fat metabolism is trained, the thriftier the musculature with the valuable Glykogene can go around.


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